Take a look at Fallout 4 Perks Guide A full breakdown
The Fallout 4 Perks Guide will provide you with a full breakdown on all of the different type of perks that are in the game. There are a total of 70 perks, with 275 ranks, and the player is able to choose one perk every level.
The first choice you make, early in the game, is the starting value from 1 to 10 of your 7 SPECIALs: Strength, Perception, Endurance, Charisma, Intelligence, Agility, and Luck.
Bethesda has improved in some ways Fallout 4 where is based on XP like in Fallout 3 and will not be based on skills like is in Skyrim. Below see what Bethesday had to say about Leveling up in the game and how the perks would work:
TOC: Walkthrough | Fallout 4 Perks | Bobbleheads Locations | Magazine Locations | Mods Tutorial | Power Armor Locations | Fallout 4 Cheat Codes | Unique Weapons Locations | Apparel Locations | Crafting | Power Armor Paint
Levelling is experience point (XP) based like Fallout 3, not skill-based like Skyrim. But levelling speed is closer to Skyrim, and not as slow as Fallout 3. This means you’ll be getting more opportunities, especially early on, to level up and select a Perk. Additionally, whereas Fallout 3 had an initial level cap of 20, Fallout 4 has no level cap, and we’ve balanced the game to keep the content and challenge going for higher levels.